The Liturgical Movement which started in the 19th century with Abbot Prosper Gueranger and the Benedictine monks of the Abbey of Solesme of France slowly spread to other monasteries and countries. The reforms proposed by this movement received papal support especially from Popes St. Pius X and Pius XII. This led up to the call of reforming the liturgy as an important item for the Second Vatican Council to work on. The liturgy became the first topic dealt with by the Council which produced the document, Sacrosanctum Concilium which was approved by the bishops 2,147 for the document and only 4 against it. This marked a major change in the Catholic Church which continues down to this day.
In her next chapter Ferrone explores the major concepts of the document: the Paschal Mystery which returned the Church to the thinking of not only of the passion and death of Christ, but also his resurrection; the liturgy being the “summit and source” of the Church’s life; all Christians are to participate fully and actively and not like they had done before. Before Vatican II people usually did not exactly know what was going on at Mass since it was in Latin. Many did their own devotions and could not hear what the priest was saying. Sometimes there was a choir which performed songs that the congregation did not participate in. Vatican II changed this.
The next concepts say that all should perform their proper roles during the liturgy. That means the ordained do their particular roles either as a bishop, priest, or as a deacon. The non-ordained are to do their roles as cantors, organists, servers, readers and other ministries and to actively participate during the liturgy even if they do not have a ministry to perform.