Jun 22, 2018
Basic to the American dream is the search for freedom. In the 17th century, Europeans facing persecution for their beliefs fled to America. Since World War II, millions of people have come to the shores of this country. Wars, persecutions, economic distress and political unrest have driven them from their homes to seek a better life. Recent statistics show that there are more than 43.7 million immigrants residing in the United States. They make up 13.5 percent of the total population.
As Americans, we take great pride that we are a nation where our government protects the freedom of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. The word "freedom" belongs to our political discourse, our national debates and our everyday language. From our country's initial War of Independence until the present moment, America has gone into battle to secure and to defend the freedom of the enslaved and oppressed.
However high this country has flown the flag of freedom in the past, not everyone has enjoyed the same freedoms. In the early days of our republic, only white male property owners were free to vote. Women could not vote. In New Jersey, they did not gain the right to vote until 1807. It took the bloodbath of the Civil War to abolish slavery. Then it took the civil rights movement of the 1960s to begin to establish equality for African Americans as a matter of fact. And, the struggle still continues.
In 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment was added to the Constitution. Its purpose was to ensure that freedom in America meant that every citizen enjoy equal protection under the law for life, liberty and property. The Fourteenth Amendment literally changed the battleground in the struggle to ensure equal freedom for all. It "made the Constitution what it had never been before – a vehicle through which aggrieved groups can take their claims that they lack equality and freedom to court" (Eric Foner, "The Contested History of American Freedom," Historical Society of Pennsylvania).