Allegations against Pastor O. were brought to Woelki's attention in 2015. But Woelki, who was installed as archbishop of Cologne in 2014, decided not to open a preliminary canonical investigation and report the case to the Vatican Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.
The archdiocese said that because there were no witnesses to the alleged incident, it was "absolutely necessary" for Woelki to personally address the allegation to the priest.
But Pastor O. had suffered from strokes and had advanced dementia and was therefore unable to respond to the claim.
CNA Deutsch, CNA's German-language news partner, cited an article in the Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger, a regional newspaper, claiming that Bishop Felix Genn of Münster was considering opening "canonical investigations" against Woelki.
As the longest-serving bishop in the ecclesiastical province of Cologne, Genn could potentially trigger an investigation under Vos estis lux mundi, Pope Francis' 2019 motu proprio seeking to hold bishops accountable for mishandling abuse cases.
Woelki is the second German Church leader in recent months to ask Rome to review his handling of abuse allegations.
Archbishop Stefan Heße of Hamburg wrote to the Congregation for Bishops on Nov. 20 in connection with abuse cases that he reviewed while serving in the Archdiocese of Cologne.
Heße was vicar general of Cologne archdiocese from 2012 until he was appointed archbishop of Hamburg in 2015.
"Out of concern for the Archdiocese of Hamburg, I therefore consider it my duty to inform the Roman authorities both of the current situation and of the investigation results from Cologne, which will be available in March," he said.
"To me, it is self-evident that I cannot be a judge in my own case, but that I ask the authority that appointed me to my office as archbishop for a review."
In a Dec. 10 statement, Woelki said: "The mandate of the independent investigation is clear: regardless of person or office, all processes in dealing with sexual violence of the past decades are clarified. The investigation therefore leaves no one out, including me."
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He continued: "As archbishop, I will also take moral responsibility for suffering caused by those in charge in the archdiocese, but doing so on an incomplete basis would not do the cause justice. Should I have made mistakes in a specific case, these will be clearly stated and I will act accordingly."