Sen. Sanders said that economic consequences for working families have been dire.
He repeatedly cited Pope Francis. "Man is not in charge today, money is in charge, money rules," he said, citing the Pope's words against the world's "new idols."
"The worship of the golden calf of old has found a new and heartless image in the cult of money and the dictatorship of an economy which is faceless and lacking any truly humane goal," the Pope had said.
The senator also cited the Pope's criticism of ideologies that "uphold the absolute autonomy of markets and financial speculation," because this denies States the right to control them for the common good.
Sen. Sanders echoed the Pope's rejection of "a financial system that rules rather than serves."
In the face of financial corruption, Sanders said, Pope Francis is an example "against such a surrender to despair and cynicism."
"He has opened the eyes of the world once again to the claims of mercy, justice and the possibilities of a better world. He is inspiring the world to find a new global consensus for our common home."
The senator also drew on Pope Francis' 2015 encyclical "Laudato Si."
"The challenges facing our planet are not mainly technological or even financial, because as a world we are rich enough to increase our investments in skills, infrastructure, and technological know-how to meet our needs and to protect the planet," he said. "Our challenge is mostly a moral one, to redirect our efforts and vision to the common good."
Sen. Sanders, who is Jewish, is currently battling for the presidential nomination of the Democratic Party against former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. The New York primary election, a major event in the campaign cycle, will take place April 19.
While Sanders applauded parts of Church teaching, some of his beliefs are strongly at odds with Catholic belief.
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In his April 14 debate with Clinton, Sanders said he has a "100 percent pro-choice voting record." He called for increased federal funding for the politically powerful abortion provider Planned Parenthood.
Sanders has also sided with LGBT political causes over religious liberty concerns, vowing to veto "any legislation that purports to 'protect' religious liberty at the expense of other's rights."
(This article was updated at 2:07 p.m. local time in Rome to reflect Bernie Sanders' meeting with Pope Francis Saturday morning.)