It's an international problem, but a lot of the international community seems to be unaware. Why do you think this conflict is so invisible to them? Are they indifferent?
I think there are many causes of that, I would say 'silent' war in Ukraine. Very often in international society so-called 'rich countries' are very much concentrated in their own interests and their own life in their own international policy. Those countries who are not directly involved in the welfare of those rich, global powers are very often marginalized and forgotten. Very often modern politicians would rather close their eyes and make an impression that the problem does not exist, than making a commitment to solve those problems. I have to say that the situation in Ukraine, that war against a sovereign and independent country, the Ukrainian State, is the biggest international crisis in Eastern Europe after the Second World War. Not only on the diplomatic level, not only at a military and political one, but the humanitarian level as well because that conflict involves millions of people who are suffering. Ukraine right how has more or less 2 million internally displaced persons. Many people are trying to simply survive in the rich Ukrainian soil. This is why Ukraine desperately needs an international solidarity. Because very often in today's life human suffering is becoming a simple show. Very often in western countries news about war and suffering is simply an issue of some sort of everyday news. Very often we are indifferent, very often we would rather close our eyes and say 'this is not my business' when we see bloodshed or human suffering. This is why the situation in Ukraine arises very deep questions: do we commit ourselves to the very foundation of democracy, which is the dignity of the human person? Do we commit ourselves to establish the sanctity of human life? All these questions are rising right now in Ukraine, and we as Ukrainians would ask those questions to international society.
As far as the Greek-Catholic Church goes, how has the conflict affected it? Is there difficulty for priests in the conflict area? How is the Church handling the situation?
The role and the commitment of the Church in the conditions or war is a pastoral care for those who are suffering. We have our parishes in Crimea, we have our parishes in the occupied territory of Donbass, we have our priests even in that so-called 'Grey Zone,' which is a line of division between the territory which is controlled by the Ukrainian government and the occupied territory. We have our structures, our parishes, our communities in the whole territory of Ukraine and our mission is to be with those who are in need, to serve those who are in danger, to be with those who need our solidarity. The Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church is a global Church, we have our parishes, our communities, not only in Ukraine but in South and North America, Australia, Western Europe, so that body of the Church in such extremely difficult conditions is more or less mobilized, so we're trying to help those in need. Our priests are sacrificing their lives being with those who are in danger. We are trying to perform social services to the internally displaced persons, we are trying to be with the Ukrainian soldiers in the front line who are giving up their lives for a free and independent Ukraine, and we're trying as Christians to serve everybody who is in need without asking which kind of Church you belong to, which nationality you are, which language you speak. Of course a priest is not a simple social worker. By our pastoral care we are bringing a witness, a witness to those who very often would feel abandoned by everybody. In such painful conditions people would ask: does God care about us? Are we forgotten by God? And the presence of our priests, of our nuns, of our bishops, with those people who are suffering is a presence that God is with us, that Christ always is with those who are victims of aggression, because he himself became a victim on the cross, and in this way he brings salvation to the world. I would say service, challenge and witness in everyday life in Ukraine.
What about collaboration with other rites and other Churches in terms of mutual support? What has this been like?
As I mentioned before, Ukraine is a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and multi-religious country, but in such dramatic conditions we experienced the ecumenism in action, because nobody is asking who you are and to what confession, what Church you belong to. We are united in our care for those who are in need. We are praying together, we are helping each other, we are supporting each other as Churches, as communities, because our common goal is to serve everyone who needs our service, because all Christians believe that each human person was created in the image and likeness of God. So our service to those who are in need is an essential part of our worship to God, we cannot praise God without bringing our service to those in whom he is present today as those who are in the hospital, who are hungry, who are thirsty, who are those who are in danger of their lives.
The Latin Church has shown a lot of support to Greek-Catholics in Ukraine and to humanitarian efforts on the ground. Pope Francis also had a collection to support conflict relief efforts not long ago. What has this support meant to the Ukrainian people?
We are very grateful to the Holy Father for his initiative, first of all to bring attention of the international community to the suffering of Ukrainian citizens in Ukraine. That particular support, that particular humanitarian mission which the Holy Father announced, is not directly a support of the local Church, but this is a support and help to the people who are victims of the unjust aggression. Of course the local Churches, both Byzantine and Latin Rite, we are open to cooperate with that mission of the Holy Father, we are open to offering our structures, our possibilities, our communities, to reach those people to whom the Holy Father is willing to help. We are very grateful that the Holy Father is trying to awaken the consciousness of European Christians to that silence about the unjust war against Ukraine.
I'd also like to ask about relations with the Russian Orthodox Church. The situation has been complicated, especially given the ongoing conflict, but what is the current state of relations between your Churches?
In Ukraine we do not have the Russian Orthodox Church, we have the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow patriarchate, and that Church is also trying to help those who are in need. Of course that Church is experiencing some internal tensions concerning the Russian aggression, because those soldiers who are killing Ukrainians, the majority of them belong to the same Church. So the question is why members of the same Church are killing their brothers and sisters on the soil of Ukraine. This is a big question. But nevertheless in Ukraine we're trying to cooperate with the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, we are trying to respect the sensibility of Orthodox believers, and to help each other. I think we are discovering that there are many more things and issues which unite us than which divide us. If we would abandon politics, if we would look into the eyes of those people to whom we are supposed to serve, we will rediscover the living Christ present among us, our God, which is the same for Catholic and Orthodox, the same God for Christians, Muslims and Jews. Our Lord who is asking us to love our neighbor.
So would you say that efforts for collaboration are stronger than whatever tensions might exist?
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I have to bring the witness that our people in the very, very, basic foundation of the Church, are more united that the Church hierarchs are, and they are asking us to follow them. Those very profound questions – why do we suffer? Do we have hope? Does our sacrifice have any meaning? – are the same questions (all) people are asking; Orthodox, priests, bishops, Catholics, Muslims and Jews, and I think if we will be honest and faithful to our own vocation we will give the same response to those people. In that service, we are and will be united.
Speaking of relations between Church hierarchs, what is your opinion on the Pope's meeting with Patriarch Kirill in February?
I think it was a historical meeting. We are very thankful to God that it finally happened, because for decades we as Ukrainian Greek Catholics were called an obstacle for that meeting. Thanks be to God that now we are not an obstacle for such brotherly relationships and meetings. I think that the Holy Father is opening a new page in the history of relationships between Catholics and Orthodox. But in order to cooperate, in order to develop our brotherly relationships we cannot put any conditions. The main discussion in Ukraine, (in terms of) some sort of 'conditions,' were some points of the joint declaration that was signed. But the Holy Father, many times when I had the chance to talk to him, underlined that for him the most important (thing) is a person and not a paper, a meeting and not a declaration, cooperation and not some theoretical thinking, some philosophical statements, because that theory would come and go, a declaration would be forgotten, but the gesture of open arms will remain.
You have known the Pope since his time in Argentina. He seemed to have had great success in uniting people from different religions and backgrounds in that context. Do you think he's using the same strategy as then, but in perhaps a broader scale as Pope?
I have to say he is the same person as he was in Buenos Aires. He's the same as the Successor of Peter in Rome, and his policy is almost the same, because he's trying to really break all those divisions, all those prejudices against brothers and sisters. I think really that he's under the motion of the Holy Spirit, which brings him to appreciate the dignity of the human person regardless of what confession, Church or political background that person comes from. I think this is how we Christians are supposed to bring our witness to Christ in the future, and I think in that motion of the Holy Spirit we can build unity. The unity of the Church, the unity of the human race. I remember the words of St. Pope John Paul II, that a united Europe can be united only in Christ. And I think the Holy Father Francis is simply going forward on the same path.
Would say that so far his strategy is working?