Carl Anderson, Supreme Knight of the Knights of Columbus, introduced Pence by saying that the U.S. needs a "new national political consensus" built on faith.
He added that "the times require men and women of prayer and humility, courage and conviction, leaders who can help bring healing to our nation."
Pence began his keynote address by expressing his sorrow on behalf of the administration at the recent terror attacks in London that killed seven and injured 48, after attackers drove a van into pedestrians on London Bridge, disembarked from the vehicle, and stabbed other persons in the vicinity on Saturday.
Pence also mentioned Monday's hostage situation in Melbourne, Aus., in which a gunman was killed in a shootout with police and several officers were injured, according to the BBC.
"Our hearts break for the families and the victims," Pence said. "They have our prayers. They have our unwavering resolve."
Pence, one of six children, was baptized and raised Catholic, but said in October's vice presidential debate that "my Christian faith became real for me when I made a personal decision for Christ when I was a freshman in college."
He referred to himself as a "born-again Evangelical-Catholic" in a 1994 interview, and began attending an Evangelical megachurch with his family in the 1990s. He now says in public that he is a Christian.
Pence recalled on Tuesday that he received the Sacrament of Confirmation as a youth, with the name "Michael Richard Christopher Pence." He also noted how "my Catholic faith poured an eternal foundation in my life" during his childhood in Indiana, and joked that he spent "eight years of hard time in a Catholic school," the "beneficiary of an extraordinary Catholic education."
"My own faith journey has taken me and my family in a different direction," he said on Tuesday. Pence has not revealed which church he regularly attends. He stated Tuesday that he had "just attended Mass this weekend with my mom in Chicago."
"My mom would be so proud," he said of his speaking at the Catholic prayer breakfast, adding that "this honestly feels like coming home to me."
He focused some of his speech on persecuted Christians worldwide, maintaining that the Trump administration is committed to promoting and protecting the freedom of religion. He said the administration "stands with those who are persecuted for their faith around the world" and "stands with the most vulnerable, the aged, the infirm, and the unborn."
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Pence also cited President Donald Trump's executive order on religious freedom, issued last month, as an "action to protect men and women of faith in the public square."
The order, which granted "regulatory relief" to religious organizations fighting the previous administration's contraception mandate, was nonetheless criticized by certain religious freedom advocates as being not broad enough. One chief criticism was that it failed to protect persons and institutions sued for discrimination for not supporting same-sex marriage.
Pence also mentioned Trump's May 24 meeting with Pope Francis at the Vatican, saying the president and the Pope had a "lengthy and meaningful discussion about issues facing our world, about how our nation and the Church can work together."
In particular, one area of collaboration could be to counter "the persecution of people of faith across the wider world," he said on Tuesday, noting recent violence against Coptic Christians in Egypt as well as the genocide of Christians in Iraq and Syria. "I believe that ISIS is guilty of nothing short of genocide," he said of the terror group the Islamic State.
"Protecting and promoting religious freedom is a foreign policy priority of this admin," he insisted.
However, the administration has yet to appoint an international religious freedom ambassador, a key position in the State Department charged with promoting religious freedom as part of U.S. diplomacy.