I think efforts like this that really bring together a multitude of stakeholders. As I said, technology companies work together. Sometimes I feel like I work and talk to Twitter and Google and YouTube and Facebook more so in a week than I do with my own colleagues at Microsoft, so we're always working together. Civil society works together. Academia works together. Government works together. But now we need to bring all of those stakeholders together. WeProtect started that effort, but I could say that there are really only four stakeholder groups there: that would be the technology companies, governments, law enforcement and civil society. But now with this world congress we're expanding to include the Church and faith-based organizations, to include a broader array of academics, to include the public health sector. Now, with more people it could sometimes present a little bit more conflict, or hiccups or hurdles that we're going to have to get over, but we're going to have to find a way that we're all going to have to agree on certain things, and then build from there.
On a practical level, you've spoken about all the boards and committees that you are a part of, and it's really important to be a part of that conversation, but if you were going to tell me now where you are going to allocate your resources next as the frontier of where to fight this issue, where do you see the challenges and problems? Where should that money be allocated?
It has to be invested in technology. But technology investments don't pay off immediately, they take time. So a lot of people are asking, 'can't you just invent a technology that can determine that that's a child sexual abuse image, and then it won't be uploaded from the get-go?' This is artificial intelligence, this is machine learning, it's only been in recent years that we've been able to identify, via artificial intelligence and via machine learning, that a cat is a cat. So when you put in the complex scenarios of the parade of horribles that could happen to a child, and the different actors that are involved in those scenarios and the different body parts, and the different scenes and places where things could happen as far as these crimes, you're adding so much more complexity. So there's a lot of work. These technology investments are not going to pay off immediately. I think people look at technology and they think it's a silver bullet, they think that technology created these problems, so technology should fix them. Number one, technology didn't create these problems, and number two, technology alone cannot solve them. So technology investments are key, but they're not going to pay off immediately. So these kinds of efforts that are multi-party, multi-focused, multi-pronged and faceted, that's where we need to put our efforts and I think the money will follow. The money will follow what proves the most successful or will at least show the most promise.
In terms of investment, many of the speakers addressed or were from areas of the world that are not as developed in technology, but are starting to gain access to the internet and don't have the background or the education about what it can do. In terms of investment, do you guys have plans to address this issue in some of these nations that are not as developed?
We have educational and awareness raising resources available everywhere. Personally I see the developing world as an opportunity. Yes they are gaining access to technology quicker, but they have the ability to learn from the Western world and the mistakes that we made, and they have the ability and the opportunity to do things right from the ground up. They just can't let the technology get ahead of them, they have to really incorporate the learning and the awareness raising and some of the good, healthy practices and habits, developing those habits for going online and keeping oneself and one's family safe. But I see it as more of an opportunity than as a problem.
You mentioned that you are also trying to broaden your network of allies in fighting this issue, so why broaden it to faith-based organizations, why come to a Jesuit university to participate in this conference?
I say why not? Why would you not take advantage of such a huge platform and such a huge array of people to make aware of the situation. These are very difficult conversations to have. People don't want, whether it's people in government or elsewhere, they don't want to acknowledge that these issues exist. It's a very delicate topic, it's a very sensitive topic, in some instances it's taboo, so it's been very refreshing to have a new outlet, to have a new audience, to potentially involve new stakeholders, and to see how people are coming to the issue and addressing it very directly, and very head-on, and being very open and transparent about what's happening in their countries, and about how serious these situations and these issues are. So I will collaborate, I will work with anyone who wants to talk about these issues, we all can learn from one another. And the only way we're going to get better, the only way we're going to do and learn more is to really expand the dialogue.
You mentioned that a lot of people say that it's all technology's fault. So what can technology do to help in the issue and what should people perhaps take into their own hands?
People need to own their own presence online and they need to know what they are doing. They need to safeguard their own reputation. So there are certain habits and practices that they could develop, we offer a wealth of materials on our website. One thing I want to point out about people and their own learning is sometimes, unfortunately, that leaning comes a little bit too late. We were discussing this in my workshop. It's been my experience that what drives people to action, and I'm talking about pro-action, is something bad happening to them. Their identity has been stolen, so now I need to go figure out how to protect myself from identity theft. A child's been bullied, now I need to go figure out what's been happening with online bullying. Unfortunately we want to galvanize people and rally them to take some proactive steps to safeguard their reputations, to know who and with whom they are talking, to know what they are sharing online, to be discreet where discretion is warranted. That's not suppressing the kinds of engagements, and connections and interactions they want to have, but that's doing so with eyes wide open, and that's doing so with a healthy dose of reality and of what could potentially go wrong and of being aware of risks. I know there was a first part to your question...
What can technology do when it comes to this issue, but what are it's limits?
Well technology can always help, and we tell people to get help from technology. So technology can help determine for instance, what parents want their kids to see online, what websites they want them to go to, who they want them to communicate with. Some people call them "family controls," at Microsoft we call them "family safety settings." And they're right there in your Windows operating system, in your Xbox live console, so that is our obligation, that is our obligation as a technology company, t put those kinds of tools and resources into the product itself to help people, and to give them the tools they need to better educate themselves, make them aware of these issues, and to hopefully get them to want to teach others, to inform others. So it very much is a multi-stakeholder issue, it's everyone's problem and it's everyone's opportunity.
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Are you going to the meeting with Pope Francis tomorrow?
Absolutely. I wouldn't miss it for the world.
Are you Catholic?
Yes, I am. I spoke with my priest before I came here, because I was a bit overwhelmed.
What do you expect from that meeting, what do you hope is going to come out of that meeting tomorrow with the Pope?
Well he's going to be presented with this declaration, which is a series of commitments, or calls to action, for every stakeholder group who was present at this congress, and it has the ability to be monumental. I really hope there is a follow-up and follow-through, because I have attended things like this before, not of this magnitude, where everyone is so excited and so jazzed to take this forward, and there's very little follow-up and follow-through, and I personally am someone who always wants to do more and to continue. I don't sign up to anything, I don't commit to anything unless I'm going to be fully in.