In 1973, Pope Paul VI issued a warning to Arrupe about experimentation in the Society of Jesus. Six years later, Pope John Paul II accused the Jesuit leadership of "causing confusion among the Christian people and anxieties to the church and also personally to the Pope," criticizing in particular "secularizing tendencies" and "doctrinal unorthodoxy" within the order.
Arrupe acknowledged issues within the Society of Jesus, and made efforts to reprimand some priests accused of public doctrinal deviances. Some in the order questioned whether he should have made systemic changes in responses to papal criticism, rather than issuing individual corrections.
Within the Society of Jesus, one of the groups who opposed Arrupe's changes called themselves "la vera sociedad," or "the true society," and were on the verge of splitting from the order, intending to intervene in the 1974 general congregation meeting until Bergoglio stepped in, at Arrupe's request, to calm the fury.
Arrupe, Ivereigh said, "held [Bergoglio] in high esteem, he trusted him."
As for the future pope, Ivereigh said Bergoglio was "unquestionably" influenced by Arrupe's leadership, and often cited his former superior general in speeches.
"Arrupe was something of a model for Francis," the biographer said, explaining that the main threads of similarity between the two were not only a shared concern for the poor, but also their approach to modernity, believing that what was needed was "an engagement" between faith and the modern world.
"Not to reject modernity, but to discern what was good, what was threatening to the Gospel, and what wasn't. I think that was Arrupe's big thing, rather than being in this constant confrontation with the modern world, to have a dialogue with it," Ivereigh said.
After suffering a stroke in 1981, Arrupe resigned as superior general of the order and recommended American Jesuit Vincent O'Keefe take his place. However in a move some perceived as a rebuke, Pope John Paul II appointed Jesuits Paola Dezza and Giuseppe Pittau to oversee the society until a new leader was elected.
During the September 1983 general congregation, Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, S.J., was elected as the new minister general, a position he held until 2008, when he resigned and was succeeded by Fr. Adolfo Nicolas.
Arrupe died Feb. 5, 1991.