Denver, Colo., Nov 2, 2018 / 14:13 pm
After years in decline, Catholic clergy sex abuse could be on the rise again, warns a professor-priest's analysis of relevant data.
The professor's report sees a rising trend in abuse, and argues that the evidence strongly suggests links between sexual abuse of minors and two factors: a disproportionate number of homosexual clergy, and the manifestation of a "homosexual subculture" in seminaries.
"The thing we've been told about the sex abuse is that it is somehow very rare and declined to almost nothing today is really not true," Father D. Paul Sullins, a Catholic priest and retired Catholic University of America sociology professor, told a Nov. 2 press conference.
"I found that clergy sex abuse did drop to almost nothing after 2002, but then it started to creep up," he continued. "It's been increasing. And there are signs that the bishops or the dioceses have gotten complacent about that."
"It's not at the great heights that it was in the mid-1970s, but it's rising. And it's headed in that direction," he added.
Clergy sex abuse incidence is today about one third as common as in the late 1980s. While sex abuse by clergy is "much lower" than 30 years ago, it has not declined "as much as is commonly thought." Most of the decline since the 1990s is consistent with "a similar general decline in child sex abuse in America since that time," Sullins' report said.
The decline is not necessarily related to measures taken by the U.S. bishops. Sullins told the press conference he saw no link between a decline in abuse and the implementation of the U.S. bishops' 2002 Charter for the Protection of Children and Young Adults.
"Recent experience calls into question whether the current understanding of the nature of the abuse and how to reduce it is accurate or sufficient," said Sullins in his report.
Efforts to address clergy abuse must acknowledge both "the recent increase of abuse amid growing complacency" and the "very strong probability" that the surge in abuse in past and present is "a product, at least in part, of the past surge and present concentration of homosexual men in the Catholic priesthood."
The report was released Nov. 2 by the Louisiana-based Ruth Institute, where Sullins is a senior research associate. It has been reviewed by several scholars, including four social scientists, and is planned to be included in an upcoming book.
His study aimed to address a common question: is the sex abuse related in any way to homosexual men in the priesthood?
"I hear on the one hand denial of that, almost without even thinking about it, and I also hear advocacy of that, almost without even thinking about it," Sullins said Nov. 2. "The question comes up logically because the vast majority of victims were boys. Usually in sex abuse of minors, two-thirds of victims are girls."
Sullins' report is titled "Is Catholic clergy sex abuse related to homosexual priests?" and he does not avoid the sometimes controversial question. The report compares "previously unexamined measures of the share of homosexual Catholic priests" and the incidence and victim gender of minor sex abuse victims by Catholic priests from 1950 to 2001.
Sullins' sources included a 2002 survey of 1,854 priests by the Los Angeles Times that included questions about respondents' sexual orientation, age, year of ordination, and whether they thought there was a homosexual subculture in their seminary. He measured abuse using data provided by the authors of the John Jay College of Criminal Justice reports, which themselves used reports of abuse provided by Catholic dioceses.
"Although over 8 in 10 of victims have been boys, the idea that the abuse is related to homosexual men in the priesthood has not been widely accepted by Church leaders," said Sullins.
"(T)he data show that more homosexual men in the priesthood was correlated with more overall abuse and more boys abused compared to girls," he added.
The increase or decrease in the percent of male victims correlated "almost perfectly" with the increase or decrease of homosexual men in the priesthood, he said, citing a 0.98 correlation. While the correlation was lower among victims under age 8, it was "lower but still strong," 0.77. The statistical association between homosexual priests and abuse incidence was "extremely strong," given that this scale ranges from -1.0, an inverse correlation, to 1.0, an absolute positive correlation.
Such results were "as close as you can get to a perfect correlation as I have ever seen," Sullins said Nov. 2, adding that researchers usually consider correlation association above 0.3 or 0.4 to be a strong effect.
He took care to say it is the disproportionate presence of homosexual men in the priesthood, not the simple presence of any homosexual men, that appears to be the major factor.
"What I say in the paper is that when homosexual men were represented in the priesthood at about the same rate as they were in the population, there was no measurable problem of child sex abuse," Sullins said. "It was only when you had a preponderance of homosexual men."
The percentage of homosexual men in the general population is estimated at two percent. In the 1950s, homosexual men in the priesthood were about twice their percentage in the general population, making up four percent. in the 1980s they were eight times the percentage in the general population, 16 percent, according to Sullins.
"When you get up to 16 percent of priests that are homosexual, and you've got eight times the proportion of homosexuals as you do in the general population, it's as if the priesthood becomes a particularly welcoming and enabling and encouraging population for homosexual activity and behavior," he said Nov. 2.
Sullins was clear he wanted to avoid recommending any particular action based on his research.
"I would certainly not recommend that we remove all homosexuals from the priesthood," he said. "The reason for that is: the abuse is not necessarily related to someone's sexual orientation." He cited his knowledge of men with same-sex attraction who are "strong, faithful persons," adding "I would hate to have some sort of litmus test for that."
If the Catholic Church in the U.S. were like most institutions, where two-thirds of abuse victims were female, people would reject the suggestion to eliminate all heterosexual men from the priesthood. That suggestion would be an "ideological reaction," he said.
He suggested the priesthood should reflect the general population, as a sign priests are selected for "holiness and commitment to Christ and the things that we would hope would make for a good priest."
"When you start to get a larger proportion of homosexuals It looks like you are actually selecting for same-sex orientation," he said.
Seminary candidates have reported about the problems this disproportion creates, he continued. According to Sullins, Donald Cozzens' 2000 book "The Changing Face of the Priesthood" discusses accounts of homosexual students being so prevalent at some seminaries that heterosexual men felt destabilized and disoriented and left.
"That's not a positive outcome. I do not think we would want to have that proportion of a homosexual culture in the priesthood," said Sullins.
There appear to be verifiable trends in increases and decreases in the ordinations of homosexual priests.
"From 1965 to 1995 an average of at least one in five priests ordained annually were homosexual, a concentration which drove the overall proportion of homosexual men in the priesthood up to 16 percent, or one in six priests, by the late 1990s," said Sullins' report.
"This trend was strongly correlated with increasing child sex abuse," he said.
Drawing on his findings, Sullins predicted that if the proportion of homosexual priests remained at the 1950s level "at least 12,000 fewer children, mostly boys, would have suffered abuse," he said. As a percentage, this means abuse would have been about 85 percent lower.
The presence of homosexual subcultures in seminaries, as reported by priests considering their own seminary life, accounts for about half the incidence of abuse, but apparently not among heterosexual men.
"Homosexual subcultures encouraged greater abuse, but not by heterosexual men, just by homosexual men," Sullins said Nov. 2. He suggested these subcultures encourage those who may have been attracted to male victims to act out more than would have been the case otherwise.
Sullins, a former Episcopal priest, has been married for 30 years and has three children. He was ordained to the Catholic priesthood in 2002 by then-Cardinal Theodore McCarrick of Washington.
"I was surprised and shocked, like most of us earlier this year, to hear about Cardinal McCarrick," Sullins said. "I was particularly impressed by that because I was ordained by Cardinal McCarrick in 2002, and probably knew him better than most people would have."
His report follows the June revelations that former Archbishop McCarrick was credibly accused of sex assault on a minor, revelations which prompted men to come forward saying he had sexually abused them as seminarians-and prompted Pope Francis to accept the archbishop's almost unprecedented resignation from the cardinalate. McCarrick was deeply influential and had been a leading personality in the U.S. bishops' response to the 2002 scandals.
In August, a Pennsylvania grand jury released its report on Catholic clergy sex abuse in six dioceses. It tallied over 1,000 credible accusations against hundreds of priests over decades, though many of these accusations had been reported in 2004.
"What was new in 2018 was not primarily the revelation of abuse by priests, but of a possible pattern of resistance, minimization, enablement and secrecy-a 'cover-up'-on the part of bishops," said Sullins, who used some of the grand jury report data for his study.
As part of the U.S. bishops' response to the first sex abuse scandal in 2002, the John Jay College of Criminal Justice issued two bishop-commissioned reports: a 2004 report on the nature and scope of clergy sex abuse and a 2011 report on the causes and context of sex abuse.
Sullins criticized the 2011 report's claim that sex abuse perpetrators are mainly "situational or opportunistic" and the sex of the victim is less relevant to them. In his view, multiple offenders "abused a higher proportion of male victims than did single offenders, and the proportion increased with higher numbers of victims." If multiple offenders were better at acquiring victims, "they appear to have used their skills to obtain access to more boys, not fewer."
Abuse of girls dropped off at the same rate in the 1980s and 1990s, and the data suggest that as girls became more prevalent in priestly life, such as in the introduction of altar girls, abusers of boys "responded to the presence of fewer younger boys primarily by turning to older boys, not to female victims."
For clergy offenders who were "classic or fixated pedophiles," targeting only victims under age eight, they still strongly preferred male victims, "conditional on higher proportions of homosexual men in the priesthood."
Sex abuse by Catholic clergy is "substantially less" than in similar institutions or communities, but it is notable that underage victims of sex assault by Catholic priests in U.S. Catholic parishes and schools have been "overwhelmingly male," said Sullins. Comparable reports in Germany indicate that up to 90 percent of abuse victims of Catholic clergy have been male, compared to about half of victims in Protestant or non-religious settings in that country.
Some Catholic commentators have blamed clericalism for the abuse. Pope Francis' August 20 letter on sex abuse, which did not mention homosexuality, said communities where sexual abuse and "the abuse of power and conscience" have taken place are characterized by efforts to reduce the Catholic faithful to "small elites" or otherwise replace, silence or ignore them.
"To say 'no' to abuse is to say an emphatic 'no' to all forms of clericalism," the Pope said.
In a May 21, 2018 audience with Italian bishops, the Pope said it is better not to let seminary candidates enter if they have "even the slightest doubt" about the fitness of individuals with homosexual "deep-seated tendencies" or who practice "homosexual acts," but want to enter the seminary.
These acts or deep-seated tendencies can lead to scandals and can compromise the life of the seminary, as well as the man himself and his future priesthood, he said, according to Vatican Insider.
A 2016 document from the Vatican's Congregation for Clergy, "The Gift of the Priestly Vocation," cites a 2005 Vatican document which says: "the Church, while profoundly respecting the persons in question, cannot admit to the seminary or to holy orders those who practice homosexuality, present deep-seated homosexual tendencies or support the so-called 'gay culture'."
The bishops' 2002 child protection charter drew criticism from Sullins. Its failure to acknowledge that bishops can commit abuse or cover up abuse "seemed to confirm the suggestion of a cover-up: indeed, to the extent bishops may have covered up priestly misbehavior, the charter itself may have covered up episcopal misbehavior."
He faulted the 2011 John Jay report on the causes and context of clergy sex abuse, which said that a reported increase in homosexual men in seminaries in the 1980s did not correspond to the number of boys abused. Sullins noted that the authors acknowledged they did not collect or examine direct data on priests' sexual identity and any changes in it over the years. They relied on "subjective clinical estimates and second-hand narrative reports of apparent homosexual activity in seminaries," Sullins said.
The Ruth Institute, which published Sullins' report, was founded in 2008 by Dr. Jennifer Roback Morse, an economics-trained author and writer on marriage, family and human sexuality. She served as spokesperson for Proposition 8, the California ballot measure which defined marriage as a union of one man and one woman. The institute was backed by the National Organization for Marriage Education Fund until 2013.
Groups including the Human Rights Campaign, GLAAD, and the Southern Poverty Law Center have criticized the Ruth Institute's stance against same-sex marriage and other LGBT causes.
The Southern Poverty Law Center, which originally monitored foes of the civil rights movement, in the 1980s began tracking neo-Nazi groups and Ku Klux Klan affiliates. In recent years it has listed mainstream groups like the Ruth Institute, the Family Research Council and Alliance Defending Freedom as "hate groups" for their "anti-LGBT" stance.
In an Aug. 23, 2017 response to the listing, the Ruth Institute said it "categorically condemns white supremacy, racism, Nazism, and all violent totalitarian political movements."
"People who cannot defend their positions using reason and evidence resort to name-calling to change the subject away from their anemic arguments," the institute said. "The 'hate group' label is a club such people invented to bludgeon their political opponents."