Spain's penal code requires monetary fines for "publicly disparaging dogmas, beliefs, rites or ceremonies" of a religion, and include similar penalties for those who publicly disparage people without a religious faith.
Greek law maintains that "anyone who publicly and maliciously and by any means blasphemes the Greek Orthodox Church or any religion tolerable in Greece shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than two years."
The Italian criminal code also includes provisions for "insulting the state religion," however the government does not generally enforce the law against blasphemy.
In Thailand, the constitution calls for the state to "implement measures to prevent any forms of harm or threat against Buddhism" with potential punishment from two to seven years imprisonment.
In Pakistan, Catholic mother-of-five Asia Bibi was recently acquitted after spending eight years on death row. However, her life is still in danger, as the ruling is under government review as part of a deal to appease groups that were leading riots in the streets. And the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan reports that at least 40 other people in Pakistan are either on death row or currently serving life sentences for blasphemy.
Nearly half of those facing the death penalty under Pakistan's blasphemy law have been Christians in a country that is 97 percent Muslim.
"Bibi's case illustrates how blasphemy laws are used to persecute the weakest of the weak among Pakistan's religious minorities," Religious Freedom Institute fellow Farahnaz Ispahani wrote earlier this year.
"As a poor Christian from a low caste, Bibi was among the most vulnerable and susceptible to discrimination. And the legal system -- which, in theory, should be designed to protect the innocent -- failed her in every way."