In his speech introducing the resolution, Sasse said that the anti-Catholic lines of questioning were "the same kind of garbage" which faced President Kennedy in 1960.
At least six other judicial nominees have faced scrutiny from Democratic senators over their Christian faith or membership in the Knights of Columbus since the 2016 election.
The Knights of Columbus are a Catholic fraternal organization with approximately 2 million members. Last year they carried out more than 75 million hours of volunteer work and raised more than $185 million for charitable purposes. As a Catholic organization, it holds views that are in line with Church teaching.
A recent Marist Poll survey, commissioned by the Knights of Columbus, found high levels of support for religiously committed candidates for the federal bench.
The poll found that 59 percent of Democrats supported people for whom "religion is important" serving as federal judges. The same poll found 60 percent of independents and more than 7 in 10 Republicans (73 percent) also supported religiously committed judges.
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"Americans rightly support religious freedom and reject religious tests for public office," said Knights of Columbus CEO Carl Anderson in a statement.
Anderson said that the Constitutional bar against religious tests "continues to strongly resonate with the overwhelming majority of Americans" and that the Marist Poll results showed a clear majority for those who "believe that faith should not be a barrier to someone's appointment to public service."
The resolution was passed by the Senate the day after William Barr went before the Senate Judiciary Committee for confirmation hearings on his nomination for the post of Attorney General.