The prosecution rested on the testimony of one of the alleged victims- the one reported to have suffered two instances of abuse by Pell. The other victim died in 2014 and was unable to testify, but in 2001 had denied to his mother that any abuse occurred while he was a member of the choir.
Pell has maintained his innocence, with his defense making central the argument that the alleged crimes would have been, under the circumstances, "simply impossible."
The cardinal's defenders have contended that the sacristy abuse allegations are not possible given the high traffic after Mass and the obstructing nature of the Mass vestments.
Pell had appealed to the Court of Appeal in Victoria. Three judges considered his case and dismissed his procedural appeal. The judges were divided on Pell's primary ground of appeal, that the decision of the jury was "unreasonable."
At particular issue was the question of whether the jury which convicted Pell had properly weighed all of the evidence presented in his defense, or reached the determination of guilt despite the demonstration of clear "reasonable doubt" that he committed the crimes with which he was charged.
Chief Justice Anne Ferguson and Court President Chris Maxwell formed the majority in favor of rejecting Pell's appeal that the jury verdict was unreasonable on the evidence presented, finding that it was open to the jury to find beyond "reasonable doubt about the truth of the complainant's account."
In an extensive dissent from the majority finding, Justice Mark Weinberg noted that the entirety of the evidence against Pell consisted of the testimony of a single accuser, whereas more than 20 witnesses were produced to testify against his narrative.
"Even the 'reasonable possibility' that what the witnesses who testified to these matters may have been true must inevitably have led to an acquittal," Weinberg wrote, concluding that Pell had, in effect, been improperly asked to establish the "impossibility" of his guilt and not merely reasonable doubt.
All three judges granted further leave to appeal on the ground of the unreasonableness of the jury's conviction.
Media commentators and members of the Australian legal community have voiced concerns about the reasoning of the two-judge majority opinion and the wider implications its argumentation could have for standards of evidence in criminal trials.
Holy See press office director Matteo Bruni responded to the Court of Appeal decision at the time by saying that "the Holy See acknowledges the court's decision to dismiss Cardinal Pell's appeal," while reiterating its "respect for the Australian judicial system."
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"As the proceedings continue to develop, the Holy See recalls that the Cardinal has always maintained his innocence throughout the judicial process and that it is his right to appeal to the High Court," Bruni said at the time.
Correction: An earlier version of this post said that Cardinal Pell's petition for leave to appeal had been "granted" rather than "referred" to the full court for decision.