"When we say a man 'towers' over his fellows, we mean to signify that they look small in comparison of him," he wrote. "This quality of greatness is instanced in the Blessed Virgin. Though she suffered more keen and intimate anguish at our Lord's Passion and Crucifixion than any of the Apostles by reason of her being His Mother, yet consider how much more noble she was amid her deep distress than they were."
"It is expressly noted of her that she stood by the Cross. She did not grovel in the dust, but stood upright to receive the blows, the stabs, which the long Passion of her Son inflicted upon her every moment," Newman wrote. "In this magnanimity and generosity in suffering she is, as compared with the Apostles, fitly imaged as a Tower."
Mirror of Justice
Newman explained that the Marian title "Mirror of Justice" needs clarification to fully understand how Mary reflected Christ.
"Here first we must consider what is meant by justice, for the word as used by the Church has not that sense which it bears in ordinary English. By 'justice' is not meant the virtue of fairness, equity, uprightness in our dealings; but it is a word denoting all virtues at once, a perfect, virtuous state of soul-righteousness, or moral perfection; so that it answers very nearly to what is meant by sanctity," Newman wrote.
"Therefore when our Lady is called the 'Mirror of Justice,' it is meant to say that she is the Mirror of sanctity, holiness, supernatural goodness," he continued.
Newman further posited: "Do we ask how she came to reflect His Sanctity? -it was by living with Him. We see every day how like people get to each other who live with those they love … Now, consider that Mary loved her Divine Son with an unutterable love; and consider too she had Him all to herself for thirty years. Do we not see that, as she was full of grace before she conceived Him in her womb, she must have had a vast incomprehensible sanctity when she had lived close to God for thirty years?"
Newman divided the titles of Mary in the Litany of Loreto into four categories: Immaculate Conception, the Annunciation, Our Lady of Sorrows, and the Assumption.
For example, Newman compares the "Morning Star" to Mary's Assumption into heaven: "Mary, like the stars, abides for ever, as lustrous now as she was on the day of her Assumption; as pure and perfect, when her Son comes to judgment, as she is now."
"It is Mary's prerogative to be the Morning Star, which heralds in the sun. She does not shine for herself, or from herself, but she is the reflection of her and our Redeemer, and she glorifies Him. When she appears in the darkness, we know that He is close at hand," he wrote.
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By papal decree, the feast of Our Lady of Loreto will be celebrated for the first time as an optional memorial in the Roman calendar this year on Dec. 10. Cardinal Robert Sarah, prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship, said in the October decree:
"This celebration will help all people, especially families, youth and religious to imitate the virtues of that perfect disciple of the Gospel, the Virgin Mother, who, in conceiving the Head of the Church also accepted us as her own."