Before that, he served for 14 years as Archbishop of Denver, helping start evangelization initiatives like the Augustine Institute, founding the St. John Vianney Theological Seminary, as well launching the Centro San Juan Diego to serve the local Hispanic community.
Born in Kansas in 1944, Chaput entered the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin in 1965 and was ordained to the priesthood in 1970. He eventually rose to the rank of chief executive and provincial minister of the Capuchin Province of Mid-America.
In 1988, he was ordained bishop of Rapid City, South Dakota, and in 1997, he was appointed by Pope St. John Paul II as the archbishop of Denver. Chaput became the second Native American to be ordained bishop in the U.S., and the first as archbishop, as he is a member of the Prairie Band Potawatomi Tribe.
In 2011, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Chaput as Archbishop of Philadelphia. His episcopal motto is "As Christ Loved the Church" (Ephesians 5:25).
Chaput also served on the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom from 2003 to 2006, and has served on the board of EWTN since 1996. He was appointed the Apostolic Visitor to the Legion of Christ for Canada and the United States in 2009-10.
When appointed to Philadelphia, the archdiocese was reeling from financial problems in the fallout of the sexual abuse crisis, facing an operating deficit of at least $6 million in 2012-13, leaving Chaput with a series of difficult and controversial decisions.
The archdiocese considered closing dozens of its elementary and high schools and partnered with the Faith in the Future foundation for 17 high schools and four special education schools. Chaput also sold off the archbishop's residence and the summer home for retired priests, as well as other archdiocesan properties.
"Complacency is the enemy of faith. To whatever degree complacency and pride once had a home in our local Church, events in the coming year will burn them out," Chaput wrote in a pastoral letter during Advent of 2011.
"The process will be painful. But going through it is the only way to renew the witness of the Church; to clear away the debris of human failure from the beauty of God's word and to restore the joy and zeal of our Catholic discipleship."
At a Jan. 23 press conference announcing the appointment, Chaput's successor Archbishop-elect Perez paid tribute to him, saying that he "made calls that, today, have placed the archdiocese in a way better place."
"Watching him from afar, I saw him make tough decisions. Many times, like a father has to do in a family," Perez said.
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Asked by CNA what he is most proud of in his 32 years as a diocesan bishop, Chaput responded "I don't think that way."
"I don't spend a lot of time thinking about what I've accomplished. I'm just grateful to have been the archbishop for eight-and-a-half years," he said.
He did, however, thank his staff and auxiliary bishops for assisting him with tough decisions, particularly the archdiocese's pressing financial and sexual abuse problems when he arrived.
He also mentioned the decision to sell the property of St. Charles Borromeo seminary and relocating it to nearby Neumann University. Chaput called that "an extraordinary accomplishment."
"I'm proud of the things that we have done together," he said.
Chaput said on Thursday that he will eventually resume responsibilities as archbishop emeritus, including giving talks and retreats, but will spend the next three months on a quieter schedule without regular commitments.