Lawyers for the private groups challenging the rule cited Department of Homeland Security estimates that the rule will cause hundreds of thousands of households to forgo benefits for which they are eligible "out of fear and confusion about the consequences for their immigration status of accepting such benefits." The Department of Homeland Security warned of increased malnutrition, especially for pregnant or breastfeeding women and their infants and children; increased prevalence of communicable disease; and increased poverty and housing instability, the lawyers said in their brief.
New York Solicitor General Barbara D. Underwood, whose state was among the plaintiffs to the legal challenge, said the new rule would "radically disrupt over a century of settled immigration policy and public-benefits programs." The established consensus was that the phrase "public charge" was limited to mean "individuals who are primarily dependent on the government for long-term subsistence," she argued.
U.S. Solicitor General Noel J. Francisco, who defended the rule, asked the Supreme Court to lift the lower court injunctions. He argued that the new rule was a permissible interpretation of the concept "public charge." It is a lawful goal to discourage immigrants seeking green cards from using public benefits, and enjoinment of the rule would cause "long-term harm" to the government, he said.
Francisco said if any resident aliens not subject to the rule disenroll from benefits for fear they would endanger their immigration status, then "such disenrollment is unwarranted, easily corrected and temporary."
Susan Welber, a staff attorney at the Legal Aid Society, opposed the new policy. She told CNN the policy aimed to exclude "as unworthy and unwelcome anyone who is predicted to receive even a small amount of food, health or housing assistance at any point."
"We are very disappointed in the Supreme Court's decision, and the irreparable consequences it will have for immigrants and their families across the nation, but we continue to believe that our legal claims are very strong that we will ultimately prevail in stopping this rule permanently," she said.
In September 2018, when the initial changes to the rule were proposed, the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops warned that the rule will be "very harmful to families" and cause fear among immigrant families who are "already struggling to fulfill the American Dream." The proposed rule "further compounds strict eligibility guidelines already in place preventing many immigrants from receiving federal aid," they said.