When the original complaint was filed with the Department of Education last year, Miller and Yearwood both spoke out, saying they were victims of discrimination.
"I am a girl and I am a runner. I participate in athletics just like my peers to excel, find community and meaning in my life," Miller said. "It is both unfair and painful that my victories have to be attacked and my hard work ignored."
The three female track athletes who filed the Title IX complaint- Selina Soule of Glastonbury High School, senior Chelsea Mitchell of Canton High School, and sophomore Alanna Smith of Danbury High School-also filed a lawsuit in federal court.
Their complaint in Soule v. Connecticut Association of Schools says that "biological differences," not gender identity, has always determined sex-specific sports "because those differences matter for fair competition."
Speaking on Fox News in 2018, Soule said that she had received "nothing but support" from her teammates and from other athletes, but she has "experienced some retaliation from school officials and coaches."
In a 2018 interview after the state championships, Soule said that she had "no problem with [the male athletes] wanting to be a girl," but that she did not think it was right that she had to race males.
"I think it's unfair to the girls who work really hard to do well and qualify for Opens and New Englands," she said in 2018. The New England championships serve as a scouting venue for many college-level coaches.
Earlier this month, lawyers for the complainants asked the federal judge hearing the case to recuse himself after he instructed them to refer to the gender identity, not biological sex of the male athletes during the trial.
In an April 16 conference call for the case, district court judge Robert Chatigny instructed attorneys for ADF to refer to the males identifying as female as "transgender females," rather than as "males," National Review reported.
"Referring to these individuals as 'transgender females' is consistent with science, common practice and perhaps human decency," the judge said.
Chatigny said that referring to the biologically male athletes as "males" is "not accurate" and is "needlessly provocative."
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When an ADF attorney responded on the call that by referring to them as "males," they were simply complying with human "physiology," the judge said that terminology was "unfortunate." If the attorneys persisted in doing so, he said, "maybe we'll need to do something."
The Department of Justice filed a statement of interest in the case in March, saying that Title IX did not apply to claims of transgender discrimination.
Attorney General Bill Barr and several other Department of Justice officials co-signed the statement of interest on March 24, saying that "Title IX and its implementing regulations prohibit discrimination solely 'on the basis of sex,' not on the basis of transgender status, and therefore neither require nor authorize CIAC's transgender policy."
"One of Title IX's core purposes is to ensure that women have an 'equal athletic opportunity' to participate in school athletic programs," they wrote, saying that requiring that biological males who identify themselves as female compete against biological girls, "would turn the statute on its head."