"If anything it creates even more complex ethical problems, a new novel way of disrespecting human life."
Lahl objected that "creating life and calling it surplus" is "an undignified view of early, nascent human life." She worried that IVF treatment and the creation of human embryos is the consequence of the belief that parents have "a right to pursue that child at whatever cost, and at whatever manner."
"It loses sight of the fact that children are intended to be gifts and blessings, not something we have a right to."
McGlade, the jewelry business founder, promoted the use of embryos in jewelry.
"Reactions from families who understand the journey are amazing and heartfelt. They are so grateful for our service," she said. "What a better way to celebrate your most treasured gift, your child, than through jewelry? It's about the everlasting tangible keepsake of a loved one that you can have forever."
Kidspot cited one mother who had her embryos turned into jewelry through the business.
"I'd heard others had planted them in the garden but we move a lot, so I couldn't do this," said the mother, who had the seven embryos placed in a heart-shaped pendant. "I needed them with me."
She said the six years of IVF treatment was "painful, tormenting, a strain on our marriage and just plain hard."
"Finding this has brought me so much comfort and joy," she said. "I finally at peace and my journey complete."
"My embryos were my babies – frozen in time," she said. "When we completed our family, it wasn't in my heart to destroy them. Now they are forever with me in a beautiful keepsake."
The Catholic Church stresses that all human life – including those in the embryonic state – have an invaluable human dignity. Catholic teaching opposes IVF.
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However, Lahl stressed the need for compassion for those who have used IVF to treat infertility.
"We need to approach anybody struggling with infertility with a lot of grace and mercy," she said. "We need to understand that infertility is a real grief. People just naturally assume that when they are ready to start their family that children will come. We have to be incredibly understanding."
"We also have to be prepared with the facts on what is really involved in reproductive technology. People are uninformed about the risk of these technologies, the ethics of using these technologies and all the problems that come about."
She said in-vitro fertilization is "fraught with ethical problems" due to the health risks to the mother, the conceived children, the cost, and the way in which the use of medicine creates more problems, rather than treats and heals conditions.
"Most of the people who enter into the assisted reproductive technology enterprise don't get a baby," she said. "Overwhelmingly, IVF cycles fail."
The process has a high failure rate and typically costs six figures to successfully conceive and bear a child through IVF.